Psoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious skin disease. This disease is recurrent. Very rarely, psoriasis can affect joints, nails and mucous membranes. People of all ages are susceptible to psoriatic disease. According to statistics, there was a tendency for the development of the disease in childhood.
Psoriasis is by no means a contagious disease of a chronic nature. Most dermatologists tend to believe that psoriasis is a systemic disease. According to them, the disease affects not only a specific area of the skin, but also attracts almost all systems of the body (endocrine, immune, nervous) into the pathological process.
From the outside, it may appear that psoriasis is a mild disease. But in reality, this is far from true. The disease is dangerous. Deaths are known in dermatology. In case of untimely or incorrect treatment, psoriasis affects the entire body, which leads to serious complications. For example:
- psoriatic arthritis
- swollen lymph nodes
- damage to the mucous membrane
- flattening and nail damage
- spontaneous pain
- rarely - damage to the heart
As a rule, psoriasis does not disrupt the normal rhythm of life of a sick person. The only drawback is peeling and inflammation of the skin. Unfortunately, it is impossible to recover from this ailment, but it is quite possible to suspend its development or prevent the occurrence of relapses. To do this, it is enough to fulfill all the prescriptions of the doctor and undergo systematic treatment in a hospital.
Causes of psoriasis
There is no specific cause of the onset of the disease. There are many factors that can lead to the development of psoriasis. There is no unequivocal opinion about one reason or another in dermatology. There are many versions. Most dermatologists believe that the disease has a genetic predisposition. It is impossible to unequivocally state or deny that heredity is the main reason. There are cases when the whole family was sick with psoriasis.
In other words, we can say this: if a mother is sick with psoriasis, it is not necessary for her offspring to definitively show the signs of this disease. But it is also impossible to rule out a genetic predisposition. For example, if a grandmother suffers from this disorder, grandchildren may never be diagnosed with psoriasis. The question of the causes of the development of the disease at the genetic level remains open to this day.
The next factor, which, according to many dermatologists, can provoke the appearance of psoriasis, is a disease of the endocrine system. For example, adrenal dysfunction, diabetes mellitus, pituitary dysfunction. The percentage of signs of psoriatic disease in people suffering from pathologies of the endocrine system is quite high. Therefore, the connection between diseases exists and is demonstrated by numerous examples.
In addition to the above reasons, there are many endogenous factors. For example:
- Postponed diseases of an infectious nature, for example, tonsillitis. According to statistics, 17% of the patients surveyed believe that psoriasis is a consequence of the complications of angina.
- Chronic infectious pathological processes, such as laryngitis or tonsillitis, can also cause psoriatic disease.
- Long-term use of some drugs: interferons, NSAIDs, beta-blockers and others.
- As strange as it may sound, pregnancy can also lead to the development of psoriasis. Significant hormonal changes occur in a woman's body, which often trigger a dormant pathological process in the body.
- It is impossible to exclude the negative effect on the human body of excessive consumption of ultraviolet radiation, that is, prolonged exposure to the scorching sun or frequent visits to the solarium.
Of course, in addition to endogenous factors, there are numerous exogenous causes. For example, skin diseases (dermatitis, mycosis, pyoderma), mechanical damage to the integrity of the skin, allergic dermatitis.
Interesting fact. Psoriasis is significantly more common in HIV-infected people than in healthy people. It is important to note that women are more susceptible to psoriatic disease than the male population. Dry, thin and sensitive skin is another predisposing factor.
You should know that if a person has immune system disorders, most often this pathology provokes psoriasis. Immune disorders and psoriatic disease are closely related.
There are a huge number of reasons that lead to psoriasis, but there is not a single one that would completely lead to the development of the disease.
Types and forms of psoriasis
Psoriasis is a multifaceted disease. According to statistics, people usually suffer from only one form of psoriasis at a time. But there are cases when a person has had several forms of psoriasis at the same time. Quite often in dermatological practice and in these cases where one form of psoriasis has passed smoothly into another. Such a "revival", as a rule, leads to an abrupt termination of the prescribed treatment.
In dermatology, there are two main groups of types of psoriasis: non-pustular and pustular.
Pustular forms- Barbera psoriasis, psoriasis of the soles of the feet and palms (see photo), Tsumbusha psoriasis, annular pustulosis. This form of psoriasis is conventionally divided into generalized and localized. The latest pustular psoriasis can occur on any area of the skin. There are cases when pustules form on the plaques of psoriasis vulgaris.
As an example of an independent disease, you can consider allopo acrodermatitis. As a rule, this disease is characterized by lesions of pustules and crusts of the distal phalanges of the fingers and toes. Another example of an independent disease of a localized form of psoriasis is pustular psoriasis of the soles of the feet and palms. It is important to note that some dermatologists tend to believe that this disease is a form of pustular bacteria.
Generalized pustular psoriasis includes:
- herpetiform impetigo,
- Tsumbusha psoriasis,
- generalized exanthematous psoriasis.
As a rule, men aged 15 to 35 suffer from Tsumbush psoriasis. This disease is much less common in females.
Exanthemic pustular psoriasis occurs suddenly (suddenly) and acutely. In most cases, there is a close relationship with other infectious diseases, such as tonsillitis. The rash is localized mainly on the trunk. More often children, adolescents are susceptible to the disease, less often adults.
Impetigo herpetiformis is a serious disease that can lead to death. As a rule, this disease is characteristic of pregnant women, more often in the second trimester. But in dermatological practice, there are still extremely rare cases of the disease in men, non-pregnant women and children.
Non-pustular psoriasis. . . In other words, we can say simple psoriasis. This form of the disease differs from others in a stable course. For the non-pustular form of psoriasis, almost the entire surface of the body is affected. This type includes:
- erythrodermal psoriasis
- vulgar, or ordinary, psoriasis, or plaque.
Ordinary psoriasis occurs quite often, up to 90% of patients with psoriasis are patients with the vulgar form of this disease.
Psoriatic erythroderma is a serious disease that often leads to a fatal outcome - the death of the patient. With the disease, there is a violation of the thermoregulatory function, as well as a decrease in the barrier function of the skin. These pathologies lead to pyoderma or sepsis.
Psoriasis classification and symptoms
There is no single classification of psoriasis that is generally accepted by dermatologists. There is still a debate on how to classify this skin disease. Some sources have their own list of forms of psoriasis. The most common classification of the disease:
- Guttate psoriasis
- Pustular psoriasis
- Psoriatic onychia
- Mucosal psoriasis
- Exudative psoriasis
- Psoriasis of the soles of the feet and palms
- Arthropathic psoriasis
- Intertriginous psoriasis
- Psoriatic erythroderma
- Seborrheic psoriasis
- Vulgar psoriasis
- Pustular bacterium
- Tsumbusha psoriasis
Arthropathic psoriasisinitially it is almost asymptomatic. Patients sometimes notice only slight pain in the joints. Over time, the pain intensifies, becomes sharp and sharp. The affected joints swell. If the disease is not treated, the joints are deformed and their mobility is limited. As a rule, arthropathic psoriasis is often accompanied by rheumatoid-type pain. In winter, there is an aggravation of the disease, that is, seasonality is characteristic of such psoriasis.
Pustular psoriasis. . . It is not common, only 1% of the total mass of patients with psoriasis falls on this type of disease. In most cases, the rash is symmetrical and localized on the soles of the feet and palms. Pustular psoriasis is generalized and localized. The latter form is more common than the former. Generalized pustular psoriasis is difficult. In dermatology, there are frequent cases of death due to sepsis and severe intoxication of the body.
Psoriatic erythroderma. . . Severe psoriasis resulting from exacerbation of pre-existing psoriasis. This disease can be both a consequence of an exacerbation of the underlying disease, and the first time it manifested itself. Secondary psoriatic erythroderma develops, as a rule, in 2% of those suffering from this ailment.
Quite often, this disease occurs spontaneously, but cases of psoriasis as a result of improper and irritating treatment of dermatosis in the acute period of the disease are not excluded. Patients notice an increase in pathological foci of desquamation, an increase in temperature, and dehydration is detected. In dermatological practice, there have been cases of death in psoriatic erythroderma.
Guttate psoriasis- the second most common disease among all forms of psoriasis, children and adolescents suffer most often. It is characterized by the appearance on the skin of a large number of dry, purple and small elements that rise slightly above the surface of healthy skin. The rash is shaped like a drop, circle or tear. As a rule, the elements cover the entire human body, but most "densely" are localized on the thighs. In most cases, the appearance of teardrop-shaped psoriasis is caused by a streptococcal infection. For example, strep throat, strep throat.
Psoriatic onychia. . . This disease is characterized by various changes in the appearance of the nail plate, both on the hands and on the feet. First of all, the color of the nail changes, sometimes the nail bed together. The nail turns gray, yellow, or whitens. Dots or small spots appear on the nails and sometimes even under the nail plate itself. The nail plate thickens, streaks and brittleness appear. Another clinical manifestation of the disease is the thickening of the skin around the nail bed. The difficult outcome of psoriatic onychia is spontaneous nail loss.
Mucosal psoriasis- is a type of pustular psoriasis or psoriasis vulgaris. Most often, the mucous membrane of the cheeks, tongue and lips is affected, less often the mucous membrane of the genitals and eyes. With the pustular form of psoriasis, the rashes are more extensive, a large area of the mucous membrane is affected, and geographic glossitis is noted. In ordinary psoriasis, flat, grayish-white papules with clear boundaries appear on the mucous membranes, towering over the unaffected surface.
Psoriasis of the soles of the feet and palms. . . This disease is a form of localized pustular psoriasis. As a rule, this form is chronic and recurrent. In dermatology, there are cases when Barbera psoriasis proceeded simultaneously with plaque psoriasis. Pustules appear on the inner surface of the hands and / or feet. Over time and under the influence of medical therapy, the pustules of the vesicles dry out. Then such dried elements form dense brownish crusts.
Intertrigue psoriasis. . . This disease is characterized by the appearance of rashes mainly in large skin folds. For example, intergluteal, creases between the fingers, groin crease, armpits and the area under the mammary gland. Intertrigue psoriasis is more common in patients with diabetes mellitus, VSD (vegetative-vascular dystonia), obesity, who do not follow simple hygiene rules.
Erythematous-papular, erosive and weeping edematous foci form in the folds. An important feature of the elements of this disease is that the detachment of the stratum corneum is pronounced along the periphery. Intertrigue psoriasis is very similar to epidermophytosis, candidiasis or rubromycosis. It is important to note that the clinical picture of candidiasis or dermatomycosis is much brighter and sharper than that of psoriasis.
Seborrheic psoriasis. . . In terms of symptoms, seborrheic psoriasis is very similar to seborrheic eczema. As a rule, the psoriatic rash has the same localization as the elements with seborrheic eczema. Could be:
- nasolabial folds
- chest area
- interscapular region
With seborrheic psoriasis, areas appear on the head on which severe peeling of the skin is noted. An important feature of this disease is the formation of a kind of psoriatic crown. The lesion of the skin occurs from the forehead and smoothly spreads to the scalp, so the contours of the crown appear so simply. It should be noted that dandruff is a warning sign that "speaks" of the development of seborrheic psoriasis.
Behind the auricle, as a rule, red eczema is formed, and purulent crusts are often layered. For rashes with localization on the chest and face, grayish-yellow scales are characteristic. A psoriatic rash always causes severe itching. It is important to note that seborrheic psoriasis is difficult to diagnose, as it is often confused with seborrhea.
Exudative psoriasis. . . This type of psoriasis is more common in children and the elderly. A rather high risk of developing this disease in patients with endocrine and immune system disorders. Exudative psoriasis often affects the healthy skin of people who are overweight or have diabetes.
This disease is characterized by excessive accumulation of exudate in the papule, which gradually comes to its surface, forming yellowish crusts. If the scabs are removed, a weeping, bleeding surface is exposed. The flakes dry out over time and overlap thus forming a rather dense and massive conglomerate.
The main feature of exudative psoriasis is a clear localization of pathological foci. As a rule, the lower limbs and large folds are the most affected. The rash gives a person the strongest itching and burning sensation. The clinical picture of this disease is acute and acute.
Vulgar psoriasis. . . It has different names in different sources. For example, plaque, ordinary, simple. This type of psoriasis ranks first in terms of prevalence: in almost 90% of patients with psoriasis, this type is observed. The disease usually begins quite acutely. The first symptoms appear almost immediately.
Vulgar psoriasis is characterized by the appearance of typical elements that rise slightly above the unaffected areas of the skin. The rash is inflamed, red, and hot to the touch. The elements are thickened, covered with a silvery white, scaly and dry film (skin) that peels off easily.
You should be aware that gray crusts can be easily removed, which leads to injury to the lower layer of the papule, which is equipped with numerous small vessels. This usually results in a minor undercut. The affected lesions in dermatology are called psoriatic plaques.
Such plates have a tendency to merge, which leads to their increase in size. Over time, plaque plaques are formed, which have a particular name: "paraffin lakes". Psoriatic rashes with ordinary psoriasis are highly flaky. Treatment is long-term and requires hospital care.
Pustular bacterium. . . According to statistics, this disease occurs mainly in young people (from 20 years old) and in middle age (up to 50 years old). The exact etiology of the pustular bacterium has not been established. It is assumed that the disease develops against the background of a strong and prolonged allergy associated with infectious foci. For example, bad teeth, tonsillitis or tonsillitis.
Psoriatic rashes affect the skin of the palms and soles of the feet. The pustular bacterium is chronic, recurrent. The first foci appear, if on the palms, then in the center, if on the sole, then on the arch. Primary psoriatic elements are small in size, no larger than the size of a pin head. Over time, the pustules dry out and form lamellar crusts. Patients experience severe itching and pain in the affected areas.
A paroxysmal course of the disease is characteristic of a pustular bacterium. At the same time, inflammation occurs in all areas affected by psoriasis. Gradually, the psoriatic foci increase, and after several weeks, almost the entire surface of the palms or soles of the feet is drawn into the pathological process. As a rule, the pustular bacterium lasts for years and with constant relapses.
Nutrition for psoriasis
Psoriasis patients are required to simply follow a diet and adhere to the basic principles of proper nutrition. The main task of the diet is to maintain normal acid-base balance. But it is important to note that the alkaline background of the body should slightly prevail over the acid one.
Of course, the balance of the body depends on the foods that psoriasis patients consume on a daily basis. It is important to know for every person suffering from this disorder that 70% of the daily diet should be made up of products that form alkali in the body. For the formation of acids - no more than 30%. In simpler terms, it is possible to say this: products that produce alkali must be consumed 4 times more than those that form acids.
List of products that form alkali in the body:
- Any vegetables except rhubarb, squash and Brussels sprouts. It is important to remember that potatoes, peppers, eggplants and tomatoes are strictly prohibited.
- Fruit should not be excluded. The main thing is not to use plums, cranberries, currants and blueberries. It is worth noting that bananas, melons and apples should not be consumed simultaneously with other foods.
- Be sure to drink fresh vegetable juices from carrots, beets, parsley, celery and spinach.
- Fruit juices from grapes, pineapple, pear, orange, papaya and grapefruit, mango, lemon and apricot can be consumed daily. It is important to add lemon juice to food.
The list of foods that psoriasis patients are forbidden to eat (in the form of acid):
- You should completely eliminate or minimize the consumption of foods containing starches, fats, sugars and oils. Typically, these include the following foods: potatoes, beans, cream, cheese, cereals, meat, dry peas. An unbalanced daily intake of these products inevitably leads to the initiation of acid reactions in the blood. The result is a deterioration in well-being.
- It is important to properly balance the food. There are a number of foods that are forbidden to consume at the same time. For example, meat products with foods that contain a large amount of sugar and sweets and starch should not be combined.
- It is important to limit your sugar intake. Preservatives, vinegar, dyes and various food additives should be included in the diet as little as possible.
- The main point is that it is necessary to completely exclude the consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages.
Every psoriasis patient should remember that eating right is an important condition in the treatment of this disorder. It is imperative to replace frying with stew or boiling. It is necessary to eat foods that are subject to delicate processing.
Treatment of psoriasis should occur during an exacerbation in a hospital setting and on an outpatient basis, during remission. Diet is an important point in the treatment. Fasting days are useful.
In addition to diets and specialized treatments, it is important to carefully monitor skin hygiene. For washing, it is better to use tar soap, you can also use baby soap. You should, as often as possible, take a bath with a decoction of celandine, tricolor violet or hops.
If there are no contraindications, you can try to cure psoriasis and folk remedies. Do not experiment and self-medicate. Only a doctor has the right to advise which folk remedy is useful and necessary.
List of safe and effective ointments for psoriasis:
- A pack of butter (but not spreadable) should be placed in a saucepan with crushed propolis (10 g). Put on fire and cook after boiling for 15 minutes. After - you need to carefully filter the mixture and let it cool. Store this medicine only in the refrigerator. Method of application: rub on the affected area several times a day.
- In a clay dish, it is necessary to grind fresh flowers of St. John's wort (20 g), celandine root, propolis, calendula flowers (10 g). Vegetable oil is added to the resulting mixture. Store in a cool place away from direct sunlight. Method of application: carefully lubricate psoriatic rashes 3 times a day.
- In a liter of white wine for half an hour, boil the gallbladder and scales of sea fish, weighing more than three kilograms, over a low enough flame. Leave to cool, strain, then add a glass of olive oil. Method of application: wash the affected areas thoroughly with egg soap and dry. Next, lubricate the elements with this mixture. The course of treatment is until the medicine runs out.
- Thoroughly mix equal parts of celandine powder and petroleum jelly (by weight). Method of application: the ointment is spread in a thin layer on the rash and left for up to three days. After that, you need to take a short break, about 4 days. Treat until the psoriasis disappears completely.
- A tablespoon of vegetable oil is added to homemade beaten eggs (2 pieces). The mixture is whipped again, after which acetic acid (40 g) is introduced. Store the ointment in a jar with a tight-fitting lid. Method of application: treat psoriatic rashes once a day, preferably at night.
- An equally effective and common remedy for the treatment of psoriasis is the healing mud. The mud must be heated up to 38 degrees and applied to the affected skin. This procedure should be done in the evening, preferably before bedtime. After 30 minutes, the dirt is removed with warm water. It is important to remember that after soiling, all rashes must be treated with saline. The body should dry out and the excess salt should fall off. Without washing or moisturizing your skin, you need to go to bed. And only in the morning, lubricate the psoriatic elements with the cream. The recommended course is 20 procedures (every other day).
Whatever the popular method of psoriasis treatment, it must be negotiated with the attending dermatologist.