Psoriasis is a chronic dermatological disease of the skin. Psoriasis is expressed in the form of papules (swollen spots) of red color. In recent years, the disease has become increasingly common in people between 20 and 30 years of age. Unfortunately, the modern level of medicine cannot prevent the spread of the disease. Why does psoriasis appear, what should be the effective treatment? Let's find out in more detail.
Causes of the disease
There are many different types of assumptions around the world as to what causes psoriasis. However, this problem has not been fully studied in medicine. There are various theories, but it is not yet clear where psoriasis comes from.
There are two main types of psoriasis: due to a hereditary factor (there is a change in the immune system) and the so-called "late-onset type" - after 40 years (affected areas - nails and joints).
Why does psoriasis appear?
At the modern level of medicine, psoriasis is considered a failure in the integral system of the body and not as a separate disease. In addition to the typical skin rashes, patients suffer from dysfunction of the endocrine, nervous and immune systems.
There is no single answer to the question of what causes psoriasis. There are several typical theories of psoriasis. Let us dwell on each of them in more detail.
The immune theory is recognized by many doctors around the world. According to this theory, psoriasis occurs due to the dysfunction of the body's immune system. What are the causes of psoriasis on the body? Typical papules (bright red spots) appear as a result of autoimmune aggression. The immune system perceives skin cells as foreign, so it gradually rejects them. In their place, characteristic papules appear.
A long time ago, doctors established that psoriasis can develop against the background of ongoing infectious diseases: sinusitis, tonsillitis. This theory has a right to exist, since the dysfunction of the immune system and causes psoriasis. By studying the papule scales, scientists found that they contain antigenic complexes that are not characteristic of healthy cells. There are antibodies to these complexes in the blood, so rejection occurs - papules are formed.
Low immunity is a breeding ground for the development of psoriasis.
At the genetic level
Unfortunately, psoriasis can be inherited. However, it should be borne in mind that it is not the disease that is transmitted at the gene level, but the predisposition to it. This fact is confirmed by direct statistics: 60% of patients with psoriasis have blood relatives who have the same diagnosis.
If one of the parents is sick with this disease, then the probability of psoriasis in a child is 25%. If both parents have psoriasis, the risk rises to 75%.
Scientists have shown that the disease is directly related to the chromosomal region, which determines the level of the inflammatory response in the skin. However, genetic predisposition cannot be considered the main cause of psoriasis.
Some people are resistant to psoriasis. Among them are the Indians living in the Andes, the Eskimos. These people have genetic characteristics, thanks to which their representatives never get psoriasis.
What are the causes of psoriasis in adults? According to the endocrine theory, psoriasis can result from a hormonal dysfunction. This theory was advanced by doctors after carefully analyzing the course of the disease itself. Excessive skin cell production is believed to be the result of a disturbance in the body's regulatory function. As a result, due to the dysfunction of the endocrine system.
During hormonal surges in women (ovulation and menstruation) and during pregnancy, psoriasis is activated. However, until now, scientists have not identified a hormone that affects the appearance of psoriasis as such. It is for this reason that the endocrine theory cannot be said to be fundamental.
Neurogenic theory is considered one of the most recent. According to her, psoriasis arises "from the nerves", respectively, the psychological factors are to blame. Psoriasis causes neurosis. As a result of neurosis, blood vessels narrow, the blood supply to the skin is weakened, then papules are formed.
Therefore, it is not for nothing that all the people around, when asked what causes psoriasis, immediately answer that it is from the nerves.
According to a series of studies, it becomes clear that stress, deep inner experiences, nerve shocks are stimuli for the appearance of skin rashes.
There is also a viral theory. Within its framework, doctors argue that psoriasis can appear as a result of an infection. Indeed, during infectious diseases, papules appear more often, and lymph nodes increase. However, some doctors attribute these changes to a weakening of the immune system in general.
In the entire history of the existence of the disease, no specific pathogen has been identified that would provoke the appearance and development of psoriasis.
Psoriasis is a disease that is not transmitted by contact. Not a single case of infection with this disease has been recorded even after a blood transfusion from an infected person to a patient.
Disorders in metabolic processes
During psoriasis, many patients have a low temperature, high cholesterol levels, impaired metabolism of vitamins, carbohydrates and trace elements. All this indicates signs of metabolic disorders in the body.
As a result of repeated studies of patients with psoriasis, doctors came to the conclusion that one of the reasons for the appearance of the disease lies in the violation of metabolic processes.
Factors that trigger the appearance of psoriasis
To understand exactly what causes psoriasis, it is necessary to outline the range of factors that can provoke its occurrence. Among the most powerful factors are the following:
- stress, negative emotions, mental trauma, emotional and physical fatigue are fertile ground for the recurrence of psoriasis;
- infectious diseases, vaccinations;
- changes in the body at the hormonal level (during puberty, during pregnancy, breastfeeding);
- physical injuries: scratches, burns, bites, frostbite;
- taking certain drugs: antibiotics, vitamin complexes, immunostimulants;
- with improper nutrition (an abundance of sweets, fatty, fried, and even alcohol in the diet);
- when the climate changes (unfavorable conditions - humid climate, sudden changes in temperature);
- in the presence of other dermatological diseases: dermatitis, fungi.
The cause of psoriasis can be hidden in one of the factors. Therefore, a patient suffering from this disease should minimize the manifestation of the aforementioned external factors affecting relapse.
The main symptoms
Psoriasis can occur at any age, including children. Moreover, the earlier the disease appears, the more accurately it will pass into the advanced stage.
How psoriasis looks like, the photos below demonstrate: the formation of a rash, cracks, papules on the surface of the skin (red spots with white scales).
The first signs that indicate psoriasis are:
- pustular cracks and rashes on the skin;
- the nail plate exfoliates;
- blisters appear on the palms and feet;
- the skin is strongly exfoliated;
- itching in the area of the papules.
With the progression of the disease, the number of papules increases to 10 cm. The skin in the damaged areas is sensitive, but the hairline remains.
There are various forms of manifestation of psoriasis:
- simple - spreads to the skin of the legs (in the extensor surface of the knees), the papules are covered with white scales;
- seborrheic psoriasis usually occurs in people who also suffer from seborrhea; this disease is characterized by the appearance of yellow papules, which adhere to the sebum, do not lend themselves to the inflammatory process and are located mainly in the scalp, behind the ears and on the face;
- arthropathic psoriasis - papules appear on the site of the joints, feet and hands, so the disease interferes with their normal mobility;
- reverse - papules are localized in the natural folds of the body, often this form of the disease is adjacent to problems in the endocrine system of the body;
- teardrop psoriasis may appear on the head, from which psoriasis of this form appears - it is not known for sure;
- nail psoriasis - the disease manifests itself exclusively on the nails - they thicken and deform, the nails affected by the disease look like a bird's beak;
- psoriatic erythroderma is an extremely severe form of manifestation of psoriasis, characterized by the fusion of plaques; if the patient's case is neglected, the plates can cover the entire body. As accompanying manifestations: swelling, peeling, redness, severe itching and extreme malaise.
What are the causes of psoriasis on the hands? The reasons are purely individual.
There are various factors and theories that are not fully proven. However, many doctors agree that the causes of psoriasis can be hidden in disorders of the immune, nervous and endocrine systems.
Stages of psoriasis
There are three stages of psoriasis:
- Progressive stage: it is characterized by bright red rashes with a possible increase in quantity. If you don't start treatment in a timely manner, the disease will progress.
- Stationary stage: no new papules appear, and those on the skin have stopped growing.
- Regression stage: the papules fade considerably, the size decreases, and the peeling decreases or stops altogether.
To correctly diagnose and determine the stage of psoriasis, professional advice from a dermatologist is required. With the help of visual examination, laboratory studies and microscopy, he will be able to make an accurate diagnosis and determine the existing stage.
Psoriasis appeared: what to do?
Psoriasis is a complex disease, its treatment takes a long time. Relapses often appear even after a prolonged remission of the disease. The main goal of treatment is to eliminate rashes. That is why it is necessary to prescribe treatment on an individual basis, based on the development of the disease, accompanying symptoms and relapses.
External and internal remedies stand out among the main methods of treatment.
External treatments for psoriasis:
- ointment on solid, lanolin and fat bases;
- pine tar;
- mustard ointment;
- hormonal ointments (usually the doctor prescribes in the progressive stage of the disease).
- complex of vitamins;
- tranquilizer, neuroleptic;
- antibacterial and anti-inflammatory drugs;
- metabolic stimulant;
- immunopharmaceutical agent.
In addition to drug treatment, the patient must remove sweet, fried, spicy and smoked foods from the diet. Do not eat ice cream, coffee, carbonated drinks, mushrooms, or pickled foods.
Psoriasis is a chronic disease that is not transmitted by contact. The causes and factors of the appearance of psoriasis are striking in their diversity, so almost any person can be at risk. That is why it is necessary to be attentive to your health and strengthen the immune system. Avoid stressful situations and nervous tension! Think first and imagine how stress can turn out to be for you in the future. Be healthy!